Saturday, May 23, 2020
Analysis of Biographies of Confucius and Empress Wu Introduction The Mountain of Fame shows readers the biographies of the most colorful personalities in Chinese history. From the sage emperors to the most recent personalities in the Tiananmen Square, the biographies help us see the transition in the traditional values of China. There are more than 20 biographies analyzed in the book by John E Wills, this paper summarizes only two of them. There is Confucius; a vulnerable being whose only goal is to save the world b restoring the order that has been overtaken by endless chaos. There is also Empress Wu, a key figure of the seventh century who went down in history as an influencer of the system of centralized monarchies. She has been used a pillar for bad examples for centuries now: mostly because she was a woman who put her ideas in a field that was traditionally dominated by men- politics. This paper addresses the place of women in politics as depicted by the biography of Empress Wu. It also looks at Confucius and his attempt to restore order to the sage of kings during his time, and what the actions of these two meant for the nation of China then and what they continue to mean to the people now, long after the figures discussed in the biographies are gone. Confucius Kongzt II It is one of the most famous philosophies today: Confucianism. It was adopted from this famous philosopher and was used during the dynasties of the Song, Tang and Han emperors. Confucius is known for
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The term of creative accounting refers to select accounting methods for the preparation of financial statement that provide the result desired by the accounting preparers. Especially when the firms are under a financial difficulty, the need of creativity would be very apparent because it might be difficult for parties such as auditors, with an oversight function, to report that the account preparers are doing anything wrong (Deegan, 2010). When the economy is moving into recession, the most companies are likely to manipulate their financial statement to be in the upward direction in order for the favourable profit by overstating the asset and understating the liability. We will write a custom essay sample on Creative Accounting or any similar topic only for you Order Now b) No, the roles and responsibilities of auditors and regulators are very vital at improving control. Auditors perform audits to evaluate whether the policies and process are designed and operating effectively and provide recommendations for improvement. They also help to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the organizations risk management processes. They may prepare a comprehensive assessment of any wrong doing that might lead the organization into financial loss. As for the role of regulators, they will determine how best to cause firms subject to their jurisdiction to develop control policies and procedures to meet the performance objectives. In fact, auditors and regulators are part of the pillars of corporate governance. The auditors and regulators definitely work to predict the warning of the recession and give notification to the company. However, they could not be in position to finish final decision and to control every improvement and process. Just like the HIH insurance case, the directors still make wrong decision, even if there was the concurrence of the actuaries and the auditors. It does not matter how efficiently they played their role, it matters how efficiently the four pillars which are boarder of directors, management, auditors and regulators could be harmonized with. In other word, this failure should not be the reason to reduce the roles of auditors and regulators. How to cite Creative Accounting, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
A few years ago I was in India during Christmas. I was there along with my two cousins and a common friend. Since it was our first visit to this country, we had made elaborate plans to capture as much as we could as far as the tourist destinations were concerned. All the major bookings, which included our stay in hotels and the tickets of our different flights and trains, in order to move from one place to another within the country, had been made in advance. We were in Calcutta, a very culturally rich place in India on Christmas day. We had slept very late that night and woke up late too. When we were out from our hotel rooms for breakfast we found something unusual in the way people were discussing about something that was breaking news. On enquiring we learnt that a mega Tsunami had hit many parts of India and its neighboring countries. We will write a custom essay sample on Affective and Motivational Approach To Persuasion or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Tsunami was a new word for everyone there including us, as it was one of the rare incidents that occurred in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s history. All news channels were flashing news about it. The next day all the local newspapers were flooded with all kinds of information about this natural calamity and the extent of damage it has caused to mankind. It was an underwater earthquake of the Indian Ocean. We bought a couple of newspapers and flipped through their pages to get as much information as we could. The worst hit places in India were the Andaman and Nicobar islands Ã¢â¬â the breathtakingly beautiful group of islands that we had visited a week ago. In one of the newspapers I came across an advertisement that was persuading people to step forward as volunteers for helping the locals as well as the tourists who were still stuck there. I immediately decided to go there. I talked about it to my fellow tourists. All the three of them were very sad with this disaster but were somehow apprehensive about my idea of volunteering. We had 15 days more in India. Though they really felt bad for the sufferers, they wanted to make the most of their holiday as we had spent a lot in the advance tickets and hotel bookings. Also there was a fear in them to loose their own lives or harm themselves or get lost in the whole hustle and bustle and never ever return to their homelands. They tried to dissuade me for being so emotional. I assured them that I would think over this issue for a night and let them know the next morning. But there was something in that advertisement that was persuading my inner self to be of duty to those who really needed people like me. The advertisementÃ¢â¬â¢s heading was Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËBe where you ought to beÃ¢â¬â¢ and it carried a picture of a crying and aged man who looked completely devastated. His face resembled our friendly and gentle guide in the Andaman and Nicobar islands and this was the reason why I was being coaxed from inside to be where I ought to be. I told my cousins and my friend in the morning that I was not joining them for the rest of the tours of the places that were left in our agenda. They left for Delhi and its neighboring hill stations the same afternoon and I left for my mission that seemed most important to me at that point of time. We decided to meet after 15 days -the day on which we were suppose to board our flights back home. I took the evening flight to the ravaged destination, which was bubbling with beauty; life and kindhearted people just a few days back. I assisted as a medical carer and looked after children. Most of them had become orphans or were still waiting for their parents to be traced by army men, coastguards and volunteers like me. More than medical care they needed emotional support. They were hungry, frightened, confused and inconsolable. For two weeks I looked after them in the best possible way and tried to bring hope back into their hopeless lives. In some occasions, I also missed my meals to ensure that all of them ate well as the food supply was inadequate. Before it was time for me to leave, many NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s had come forward and taken charge of the children. I left that place with heavy heart. On the scheduled day the four of us met again in Calcutta for our departure flight. They had photographs of the last fifteen days and I had nothing but bruises and sad memories, but I was more satisfied than them. The advertisement had given me an opportunity to be of service to others, which had filled me with immense inner satisfaction and a sense of worthiness. Works Cited Arens, W.F., C.L.Bovee. Contemporary Advertising. 5th ed.Ã USA: IRWIN, 1994.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
The Lord of the Rings Review Paper Essay on The Lord of the Rings Tolkien fantasy genre is like that of Pushkin in Russian literature. Books in this genre, and wrote to him, but the count usually lead to the Lord of the Rings. The reason for this incredible popularity? Of course, but what was the reason for this popularity? I will answer for himself. When I read the trilogy, the central narrative intrigue seemed to me not very interesting (predictable, some banal and cloying). And since the separation of Frodo from the other members of the Fellowship of the Ring, I did read the chapters on his wanderings through the line. Maybe I just wanted action, scale and can be exciting, but I think that is not the case But the fact that Tolkien did not write the book, rather than just written a book -. He created Peace. And the description of the world takes me much more than the misadventures of two Halflings (relationships that Peter Jackson later gave some homosexual traits). Own world Tolkien created not only Lord of the Rings, but after reading the one only Lord, that in this world you can dive to the ears. Some, by the way, it takes a lot of time to this world to get in our reality. Of course, todays reader to hit is not so easy and now worlds like Tolkien, abound (and some are in scale and the quality of performance at least equal to the world Sredizamya). Of course, much of Tolkien seems too straightforward and naive. Of course, the works of later authors shine a much more intricate plot, truly universal scale, ambiguous characters, etc. etc. But through it all clearly show Tolkiens characters, have become a kind of archetypes of the collective unconscious fantasy authors. And no matter how revolutionary or were modern innovators of the genre, no matter how much they may alter the canons, and they can not break away from Tolkien, even if subvert it. And how many of you can name the works, the starting point of which was the language invented by the people? But Tolkien said: my long book an attempt to create a world in which the language corresponding to my personal aesthetic might be natural. Maybe this is why Tolkiens World, with all its naivetÃ © and ar tlessness (compared to later writers) do not lose any credibility of any appeal. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lord of the Rings Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Lord of the Rings Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Lord of the Rings Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer P.S. Members of the rock group The Beatles wanted to do a musical film based on the book, and to act in it themselves. Paul McCartney had to play the role of Frodo, Ringo Starr Sam, George Harrison Gandalf and John Lennon Gollum. Tolkien was shocked by such an idea.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Case study analysis of Ready Meals 1. Before and After Status of Ready Meals Case study analysis of Ready Meals 1. Before and After Status of Ready Meals2) Operation Management Laws and Theories and Cause Effect Relationships:3) General Advice:BibliographyRelated 1. Before and After Status of Ready Meals Ready Meals (RM) are a freshly prepared meals supply company with a major grocery retailer Strutt within its customer base. Strutt had previously employed a central ordering system that disregarded uncertainty and volatility factors in customer demand, where uncertainty is critical when designing any operational model. Koh (2004) defined it as the unpredictable event that has a disturbing impact on production and operations and causes model predictions to be different from reality. RM faced high demand, variability and uncertainty. On a weekly basis demand varied by 10 to 25% and, at times, exceeded 50%. The company had difficulty dealing with Strutt, which often charged them financial penalties in case of wastage or ill-timed supply. Variability and uncertainty has an impact on optimal safety stocks and lead times (Molinder, 1997). In the old system: Due to demand fluctuations orders were calculated sometimes two days prior to dispatch which extended supply lead time. A lot of sauce would go wasted due to demand variations. Trade-offs and buffering mechanisms were employed to solve volatility and uncertainty issues (Wazed, Ahmed and Yusoff, 2009). In the old system, a buffering mechanism changed working hours unannounced, which disappointed the employees and increased costs. Due to a central material requirement planning system (MRPS), impact of uncertainty was passed to suppliers. The orders were based on a provisional order because of required lead time. If the original/provisional order was low, the suppliers were pressurised for an urgent order. There was no mechanism to avoid wastage or stock from exceeding planned replenishment when the provisional order was higher. To increase availability of stock, the company had to either change the days in system or the planned coverage level. The former increased wastage risk, whilst the latter equated three times higher change in overall stock. The company needed a better designed system that addressed the weaknesses of the existing one. After implementing the new system: Because of the adjustment, it became possible for season and weekly schedules to be set and the uncertainty in demand was greatly reduced which lead to timely supplies and fewer penalties. The shelf Ã¢â¬âlife of products for Strutt was increased by dispatching orders early and on production days. The quantities packaged were according to requirements of stores by specifying location of delivery depot two days prior to despatch. This further helped avoid delays in shipment. The wastage rate of the company was effectively reduced. This lead to an eradication of the requirement to use the annualised hours buffering mechanism. The suppliers were also able to deliver more efficiently according to demand. The overall impact was a 90% increase in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products in stores. 2) Operation Management Laws and Theories and Cause Effect Relationships: The case of RM showed that in the old system, the company mostly followed the traditional operational management laws and theories. The old system was based on a trade-off model in which companies often compromise quality for cost minimisation. Ferdows and De Meyer (1990) theorised that in order to achieve cost efficiency, focus of management should first focus on quality, dependability and then flexibility of production. This cause and effect relationship can be seen within the new system employed by RM. In the new system, the focus of the company was not cost, but on quality, by increasing shelf life of products. Allowing for delivery order two days earlier, the company sanctioned dependability as well as flexibility. This meant that the penalties were effectively removed as well as the wastage. The new system can be said to be based on a just-in-time model (Ohno, 1998). According to the just-in-time concept, materials or parts are delivered when they are needed. This leads a reduc tion in wastage and no inventory. Regarding variability and use of trade off buffering, Hopp Spearman (1995) said that increases in variability decreases the performance of the system and it can only be buffered using capacity, time and inventory. Ã This was a traditional concept and the old system worked according to it. To deal with variability, the company used a capacity buffer (annualised hours for labour). This helped in dealing with variability but resulted in low morale among employees, thus low performance and an increase in costs. Fisher (1997) suggested the modern theory of accepting the uncertainty. According to him, uncertainty and variability are natural in products and adjustments have to be made in the production system to deal with them. Uncertainty can be avoided or reduce by increasing flexibility of supply chain and by cutting lead time. For hedging excess capacity or inventory, buffers can be employed. The new system accepted the uncertainty as they made adjustments for seasonal variations. Fu rthermore, dispatching on production day decreased lead time and such steps reduced the impact of uncertainty. The company, however, reduced the capacity buffer and was able to increase its availability by 90%. This is in accordance with the findings of Schmenner and Swink (1998) who gave a view that buffers should be avoided and when variations are reduced, the companies should avoid buffering for improved flow. This was found to be true in the case of RM. The company did have to use annualised hours or labour productivity buffers. This resulted in reduced costs and the performance of the company improved. 3) General Advice: On the basis of the RM case analysis, it is recommended that the company should accept uncertainty and volatility and make system adjustments accordingly. The buffer mechanisms, may appear effective at first, but the acquisition of an optimal level in trade off seems difficult therefore the company should try to find some other way to tackle this issue and rely less upon the trade-off buffering. For instance, fluctuations in demand can be dealt with by making the system more dependable and flexible. Bibliography Ferdows, K. and De Meyer, A. 1990. Lasting improvements in manufacturing performance: in search of a new theory, Journal of Operations Management, (9)2, pp.168-184. Fisher, M.L. 1997. What is the right supply chain for your product? Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp.105-116. Hopp W.J., and Spearman, M.L. 1995. Factory Physics, Singapore: McGraw Hill. Koh, S.C.L. 2004. MRP-controlled batch-manufacturing environment under uncertainty, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55, pp.219-232. Molinder, A., 1997. Joint optimization of lot-sizes, safety stocks and safety lead times in an MRP system, International Journal of Production Research, 35(4), pp. 983-994. Ohno, T. 1988. The Toyota Production System; Beyond Large-Scale Production, Portland: Productivity Press. Schmenner, R.W., and Swink, M.L. 1998. On theory in operations management, Journal of Operations Management, 17, pp. 97-113. Wazed, M. A., Ahmed, S. and Yusoff, N. 2009. Uncertainty Factors in Real Manufacturing Environment, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(2), pp. 342-351.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
What role do NGOs play in reducing poverty in developing countries - Essay Example Non Governmental Organizations have a long history in improving the lives of the poor and the suffering. In 19th century they played a major role in fighting for rights of women and ran anti slavery movements (Davies, Thomas R. 2008).After the formulation of United Nations in 1945 the term Non Governmental Organization came into existence. These organizations have many roles which include promoting rights of a specific faction of society, promoting basic services like education and health, fighting laws and rules that are against poor or a particular group and helping government fighting diseases. But the most basic role of Non Governmental Organization is poverty alleviation. NGOs can play a major role in reducing poverty by helping people at the micro level. Such organizations have access to people that are in need of help and by helping these people NGOs can reduce poverty at grass root level. Especially in the developing countries NGOs have played a direct role in improving healt h and economic conditions of the people. Issues like lack of health and education are actually a product of poverty therefore the aim of most NGOs in developing countries is to reduce poverty. In this essay we will highlight the role NGOs play in reducing poverty in developing countries. Non Governmental Organizations reduce poverty by promoting rights of poor, providing education and shelter for poor, providing micro financing services and improving health facilities. Fighting for Rights of Poor The most basic way through which NGOs help reduce poverty is by fighting for rights of poor. The main problem in the developing countries is that people are not aware of their rights due to lack of communication technology. NGOs help people realize about their rights as this is the first step in poverty alleviation. Non Governmental Organizations also play a role in voicing concerns of the people to the relevant authorities. They force governmental institutions to take action with regards t o the problems faced by the poor. This is another role they play is easing the suffering of the poor. Sometimes governments are taking steps for example increase in taxes that are in directly harmful to the interest of poor people. NGOs also play a role in fighting such steps of the government and in this way they protect the rights of the people. NGOs fight for the right to food, shelter, education etc in developing countries (Curtis, Marley, & Bakewell, 2005). They also fight against child labour and rights of women. By doing so NGOs create awareness and at the same time improve lives of the poor. The fight for basic rights can therefore be considered as an important role of NGO in reducing poverty of developing countries. Providing Shelter for the Needy The right to shelter is one of the most basic rights of human beings. No one can live a proper life without some sort of shelter. Developing countries face serious problems when it comes to providing housing for their citizens. Ma ny people in the developing world are forced to live on streets because they do not have a home. Non Governmental Organizations help poor people find a shelter in developing countries. It is important to provide shelter because it is one of the basic needs of the people. Providing shelter is one of the steps of poverty reduction in developing countries. Non Governmental Organization provides shelter to children, women and old people. Children who left their homes or are forced to leave their homes are treated by NGOs. Non Governmental Organizations are of many types as mentioned before. Some focus on children only and other provide shelter to people in general. NGOs in developing countries focus on providing secure shelter to female victims of sex trafficking (Tzvetkova, M. 2002). A direct effect of poverty is that people get desperate to find jobs in order to feed their families.